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Graham Number

The Benjamin Graham formula, often referred to as the "Graham Number," is a specific valuation formula developed by Benjamin Graham, a legendary value investor and author of "The Intelligent Investor." Graham's formula is primarily used for the valuation of stocks and is focused on finding stocks that are trading at a discount to their intrinsic value. Here's how the Graham Number compares to some of the common valuation formulas mentioned earlier:

Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio):
The P/E ratio compares a stock's current market price to its earnings per share (EPS). It is a simple and widely used valuation metric but does not provide a specific target price. In contrast, the Graham Number calculates an intrinsic value estimate.

Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio):
The P/B ratio compares a stock's market price to its book value per share. While this ratio is useful for assessing the relationship between a stock's price and its net asset value, it doesn't provide an intrinsic value estimate like the Graham Number.

Dividend Discount Model (DDM) and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Analysis:
DDM and DCF are comprehensive valuation methods that estimate the intrinsic value of a stock based on the present value of its expected future cash flows. The Graham Number is more straightforward and doesn't require projections of future cash flows.

Earnings Yield:
Earnings yield, like the P/E ratio, compares a stock's earnings to its market price. It's a relative valuation metric, whereas the Graham Number provides an absolute valuation estimate.

Gordon Growth Model (Dividend Discount Model):
The Gordon Growth Model is a simplified version of DDM that assumes constant dividend growth. While it shares some similarities with the Graham Number, it focuses specifically on dividend-paying stocks and does not consider book value.

Comparable Company Analysis (CCA) and Precedent Transaction Analysis (PTA):
CCA and PTA are methods used for valuing companies in the context of mergers and acquisitions. They involve comparing a target company to comparable peers or past transactions. The Graham Number is a standalone valuation formula focused on individual stock valuation.

The key distinction of the Graham Number is that it calculates an intrinsic value estimate based on two factors: EPS and book value per share. The formula for the Graham Number is:

Graham Number = √(22.5 x (EPS) x (Book Value per Share))

Benjamin Graham recommended buying stocks trading at prices significantly below their Graham Numbers, as these stocks were considered undervalued.

While the Graham Number is a useful tool for value investors looking for stocks with a margin of safety, it's just one approach among many valuation methods. Investors often use a combination of these methods, taking into account the specific characteristics of the stock and their investment goals.